The University of Medicine, Mandalay was founded on the first of April 1954 as a Branch Faculty of Medicine affiliated to the University of Yangon. It was located on the Mandalay University campus. It was then only a small red two-stored building owned by the Northern Burma Agricultural Divisional Office. In July 1955 it was relocated to the present site on the thirtieth street, between seventy-third and seventy fourth-streets, Mandalay.  On the first of July 1958 the Branch Faculty of Medicine became the Faculty of Medicine Mandalay, affiliated to University of Mandalay. Students had to complete the 2 years Intermediate course at the University before joining the 2nd MBBS class at the faculty of medicine. The students directly joined the 1st MBBS class of the faculty since 1963.

In November 1964, with the implementation of the new system of education, the Faculty of Medicine was upgraded to the Institute of Medicine, Mandalay. Premedical subjects of Myanmar, English, Chemistry, Physics, Zoology and Botany, were taught in the 2 years First MBBS course. The Institute was transferred from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Health in 1973 October. The foundation stone of the present building complex was laid in 1983 and the construction was completed in 1991.The name of Institute of Medicine, Mandalay was changed to University of Medicine, Mandalay in 2005.

The departments were established in phases: Departments of Anatomy and Physiology in 1954, Departments of Pharmacology, Pathology, Bacteriology, Medicine and Surgery in 1956, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Forensic Medicine and the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat in 1957. The Microbiology department was established in 1960 and the Pediatrics department in 1964. The department of Biochemistry was established in 1987 and the department of Orthopaedics was created in 1990.

Initially, Mandalay General Hospital was the only teaching hospital of the Institute. At present, Central Women’s Hospital, Mandalay Children’s Hospital, Mandalay Teaching Hospital, Mandalay Workers’ Hospital and seven state and divisional general hospitals, are now affiliated to the University. 

Post graduate courses were opened in 1967 with master degree program in Physiology. There are now fourteen diploma courses, eighteen master degree (MMedSc) courses, seventeen doctor of medical science (DrMedSc) courses and seven doctor of philosophy (PhD) courses running in the University of Medicine Mandalay.

The medium of instruction is in English for all courses except Myanmar.

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